The Circadian Code: Lose Weight, Supercharge Your Energy, and Transform Your Health from Morning to Midnight

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The Circadian Code: Lose Weight, Supercharge Your Energy, and Transform Your Health from Morning to Midnight

The Circadian Code: Lose Weight, Supercharge Your Energy, and Transform Your Health from Morning to Midnight

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Lambert, K. G., Nelson, R. J., Jovanovic, T. & Cerda, M. Brains in the city: Neurobiological effects of urbanization. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 58, 107–122 (2015). Dubowy C, Sehgal A (April 2017). "Circadian Rhythms and Sleep in Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics. 205 (4): 1373–1397. doi: 10.1534/genetics.115.185157. PMC 5378101. PMID 28360128. Norwegian researchers at the University of Tromsø have shown that some Arctic animals (e.g., ptarmigan, reindeer) show circadian rhythms only in the parts of the year that have daily sunrises and sunsets. In one study of reindeer, animals at 70 degrees North showed circadian rhythms in the autumn, winter and spring, but not in the summer. Reindeer on Svalbard at 78 degrees North showed such rhythms only in autumn and spring. The researchers suspect that other Arctic animals as well may not show circadian rhythms in the constant light of summer and the constant dark of winter. [53]

Gooley, J. J. et al. Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96, E463–E472 (2011). The term circadian was coined by Franz Halberg in 1959. [16] According to Halberg's original definition: Metabolism, cognition, and other physiological processes follow a circadian rhythm. Evening activities affect circadian rhythm. It is most important to monitor your activity between 6:00 pm and midnight. Roenneberg, T., Allebrandt, K. V., Merrow, M. & Vetter, C. Social jetlag and obesity. Cur Biol. 22, 939–943 (2012). Lie JA, Roessink J, Kjaerheim K (February 2006). "Breast cancer and night work among Norwegian nurses". Cancer Causes & Control. 17 (1): 39–44. doi: 10.1007/s10552-005-3639-2. PMID 16411051. S2CID 6281682.The observation of a circadian or diurnal process in humans is mentioned in Chinese medical texts dated to around the 13th century, including the Noon and Midnight Manual and the Mnemonic Rhyme to Aid in the Selection of Acu-points According to the Diurnal Cycle, the Day of the Month and the Season of the Year. [7] Changes to the circadian rhythm and sleep occur once an individual begins abusing drugs and alcohol. Once an individual chooses to stop using drugs and alcohol, the circadian rhythm continues to be disrupted. [127] a b c Benloucif S, Guico MJ, Reid KJ, Wolfe LF, L'hermite-Balériaux M, Zee PC (April 2005). "Stability of melatonin and temperature as circadian phase markers and their relation to sleep times in humans". Journal of Biological Rhythms. 20 (2): 178–88. doi: 10.1177/0748730404273983. PMID 15834114. S2CID 36360463. Bedrosian, T. A., Weil, Z. M. & Nelson, R. J. Chronic dim light at night provokes reversible depression-like phenotype: possible role for TNF. Mol. Psychiatry 18, 930 (2013). a b Webb AA (November 2003). "The physiology of circadian rhythms in plants". The New Phytologist. 160 (2): 281–303. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00895.x. JSTOR 1514280. PMID 33832173. S2CID 15688409.

Fonken, L. K. et al. Influence of light at night on murine anxiety- and depressive- like responses. Behav. Brain Res. 205, 349–354 (2009). It is difficult to determine if a disturbance in the circadian rhythm is at fault for an increase in prevalence for substance abuse—or if other environmental factors such as stress are to blame.Circadian: relating to biologic variations or rhythms with a frequency of 1 cycle in 24 ± 4 h; circa (about, approximately) and dies (day or 24 h). Note: term describes rhythms with an about 24-h cycle length, whether they are frequency-synchronized with (acceptable) or are desynchronized or free-running from the local environmental time scale, with periods of slightly yet consistently different from 24-h. [19] a b Edgar RS, Green EW, Zhao Y, van Ooijen G, Olmedo M, Qin X, etal. (May 2012). "Peroxiredoxins are conserved markers of circadian rhythms". Nature. 485 (7399): 459–464. Bibcode: 2012Natur.485..459E. doi: 10.1038/nature11088. PMC 3398137. PMID 22622569. Gaston, K. J., Bennie, J., Davies, T. W. & Hopkins, J. The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution: a mechanistic appraisal. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 88, 912–927 (2013). Hattar, S. et al. Central projections of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells in the mouse. J. Comp. Neurol. 497, 326–349 (2006). Chicago style: The Free Library. S.v. The Circadian Code.." Retrieved Nov 26 2023 from

Dunlap JC, Loros J, DeCoursey PJ (2003). Chronobiology: Biological Timekeeping. Sunderland: Sinauer. ISBN 9780878931491. APA style: The Circadian Code.. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved Nov 26 2023 from gene that has been implicated in both SZ and circadian organization is immediate early gene growth response 3 ( Egr3) 162, 165, 166, 167, 168. Additional support for this candidate gene is provided by Egr3-deficient mice (−/−), which display behaviors that are reminiscent of SZ and sleep less than WT controls, even though the circadian organization of the sleep-wake cycle remained intact 169. unreliable medical source?] Scheer FA, Wright KP, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA (August 2007). "Plasticity of the intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system". PLOS ONE. 2 (8): e721. Bibcode: 2007PLoSO...2..721S. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000721. PMC 1934931. PMID 17684566. Berger, M. V., Van Calker, D. & Riemann, D. Sleep and manipulations of the sleep–wake rhythm in depression. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. Suppl. 108, 83–91 (2003).

Srinivasan, V. et al. Jet lag, circadian rhythm sleep disturbances, and depression: the role of melatonin and its analogs. Adv. Ther. 27, 796–813 (2010). For temperature studies, subjects must remain awake but calm and semi-reclined in near darkness while their rectal temperatures are taken continuously. Though variation is great among normal chronotypes, the average human adult's temperature reaches its minimum at about 5:00a.m., about two hours before habitual wake time. Baehr et al. [91] found that, in young adults, the daily body temperature minimum occurred at about 04:00 (4 a.m.) for morning types, but at about 06:00 (6 a.m.) for evening types. This minimum occurred at approximately the middle of the eight-hour sleep period for morning types, but closer to waking in evening types.Zehring WA, Wheeler DA, Reddy P, Konopka RJ, Kyriacou CP, Rosbash M, Hall JC (December 1984). "P-element transformation with period locus DNA restores rhythmicity to mutant, arrhythmic Drosophila melanogaster". Cell. 39 (2 Pt 1): 369–376. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(84)90015-1. PMID 6094014. Seizer L, Cornélissen-Guillaume G, Schiepek GK, Chamson E, Bliem HR and Schubert C (2022) About-Weekly Pattern in the Dynamic Complexity of a Healthy Subject's Cellular Immune Activity: A Biopsychosocial Analysis. Front. Psychiatry 13:799214. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.799214 Leng Y, Musiek ES, Hu K, Cappuccio FP, Yaffe K (March 2019). "Association between circadian rhythms and neurodegenerative diseases". The Lancet. Neurology. 18 (3): 307–318. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30461-7. PMC 6426656. PMID 30784558. Dijk, D. J. et al. Amplitude reduction and phase shifts of melatonin, cortisol and other circadian rhythms after a gradual advance of sleep and light exposure in humans. PLoS ONE 7, e30037 (2012). Foster, R. G. et al. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in social jetlag and mental illness. Prog. Mol. Biol. Transl. Sci. 119, 325–346 (2013).

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