German Expressionist Woodcuts (Dover Fine Art, History of Art)

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German Expressionist Woodcuts (Dover Fine Art, History of Art)

German Expressionist Woodcuts (Dover Fine Art, History of Art)

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A contributor to Der Blaue Reiter, artist Marianne von Werefkin depicted intense emotional states through landscapes and self-portraits. Quoted as saying “color bites at my heart,” her works leveraged dramatic hues as a tool of expression. Her relationship in Munich with artist Alexej von Jawlensky was characterized by turbulence: as a champion of his work and primary financial support for the relationship, it served as a catalyst for much of what she put on canvas. Käthe Kollwitz German Expressionism was a pivotal part of the early 20th century, and emerged during a time when the world experienced exponential change. The push for creative freedom and a lens through which to view the world provided artists and patrons alike with the outlets needed for a new wave of self expression. From landscape paintings and woodcuts to Film Noir, German Expressionist art continues to inspire audiences today. Among the first Expressionist films, The Student of Prague [4] (1913), The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), From Morn to Midnight (1920), The Golem: How He Came into the World [4] (1920), Genuine (1920), Destiny (1921), Nosferatu [4] (1922), Phantom (1922), and Schatten (1923) were highly symbolic and stylized. German Expressionism began during the reign of Wilhelm II, German Kaiser and King of Prussia. At a time when the world was undergoing significant shifts—from industrial developments to the dawn of World War I—German Expressionism provided a lens through which audiences could comprehend and contribute to the changes at hand by challenging norms and encouraging bold demonstrations of thought. For example, works by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner depicted a growing trend of communal and nudist lifestyles in Germany with vivid colors and brushstrokes.

With faith in evolution, in a new generation of creators and connoisseurs, we call together all youth. And as youths, who embody the future, we want to free our lives and limbs from the long-established older powers. Anyone who renders his creative drive directly and genuinely is one of us." Unique amongst modernists, Rouault's artistic evolution was informed by a devout Catholic faith. Drawing on the ideas of religiously-inspired intellectuals of his time, Rouault looked towards symbolism and primary colors to express the core values of Catholicism; a highly unfashionable (and single-minded) worldview when one considers the progressive milieu in which he was working. This film can be viewed as representing the absurdity displayed in the war, as Cesare is symbolic of the innocent soldiers who were forced to kill others under the control of the government, represented by Dr. Caligari. Thus, German Expressionism existed as the appropriate movement to help employ the sense of anxiety and uneasiness that was felt throughout Germany in the aftermath of World War One. As war broke out, German Expressionism became a bitter protest movement in addition to a new and modern art style. The movement was led by the younger generation of artists, writers, and thinkers, and was initially confined to Germany due to the country’s isolation throughout World War One. Any creative that sought to dismantle the artistic thought of traditional society belonged, as this movement was borne out of a need to challenge the social conservatism that existed. Their artistic style focused on creating works that were more simplified and abstract, with figures being depicted from a flattened perspective so as not to be immediately recognizable. The distortion of forms became overwhelming within their artworks as they were depicted through a vibrant and juxtaposed lens.

Notable Expressionist Artists

Steffen, James. "Shadows and Fog". Turner Classic Movies: Film Article . Retrieved 7 February 2017. All of Rouault's Pierrots have this same elongated face and straight nose. The figure here seems quite peaceful with a slight smile and the eyes remain closed. If Pierrot is often said to be an alter ego of the artist, here, this whimsical, thoughtful and serene clown could evoke Rouault's own, newfound peace in the mid-1930s. "I spent my life painting twilights", Rouault reflected at the time, "I ought to have the right now to paint the dawn". Lionello Venturi added: "When he paints clowns, the grotesque becomes amiable, even lovable [...] colors grow rich and resplendent, almost as if the artist, laying aside his crusader's arms for a moment, were relaxing in the light of the sun and letting it flood into his work". At its core, Expressionism was concerned with emotion and the individual experience in opposition to accurate, literal, realistic representation. Confronted with a landscape or a portrait, Expressionist artists sought to depict their experience of and response to the subject more-so than the subject itself, holding a mirror to the soul rather than the source of the illustration. Their art came from within, and to express this more abstract, visualised approach they naturally turned to more abstract forms of expression. Initially sympathetic to National Socialism. Nazis nevertheless confiscated 1,052 works, more than from any other artist. Prohibited by Nazis from painting in 1941; worked secretly in watercolor. His studio in Berlin, with archive of his prints, was destroyed by bombs in 1944.

In the 1860s, just as the Japanese themselves were becoming aware of Western art in general, Japanese prints began to reach Europe in considerable numbers and became very fashionable, especially in France. They had a great influence on many artists, notably Édouard Manet, Pierre Bonnard, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Edgar Degas, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Félix Vallotton and Mary Cassatt. In 1872, Jules Claretie dubbed the trend "Le Japonisme". [6] Eisner, Lotte (2008). The Haunted Screen: Expressionism in the German Cinema and the Influence of Max Reinhardt (1sted.). University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520257900.

A Brief History of German Expressionism

The poster of the film The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920); Atelier Ledl Bernhard, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Like all women artists of her era, Gabriele Münter struggled for recognition during her lifetime, and saw her contributions to German Expressionism overshadowed by her male counterparts. “In the eyes of many, I was only an unnecessary side-dish to Kandinsky,” she once wrote. “It is all too easily forgotten that a woman can be a creative artist with a real, original talent of her own.” (This past year, at Denmark’s Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Münter’s work was explored in her first comprehensive retrospective in decades.)The term ‘Expressionism’ was popularised by several writers in 1910 including Czech art historian Antonin Matejcek and German art critic Herwarth Walden, publisher of the Berlin Avant-Garde review Der Sturm, 1910-32. The term defined an art in opposition to Impressionism; where Impressionists looked outwards to the real world, Expressionists searched inwards for deeper meaning. The style is defined by free brushwork, heightened colour and jagged or elongated forms. It was such a ground-breaking notion that in the twentieth century the term ‘Expressionism’ came to describe many styles of modern art. Influence of Munch, Van Gogh and Klimt From the beginning, printmaking fundamental to simplifying and abstracting his style. Made 663 prints, of which nearly 450 were woodcuts. Almost all date between 1905 and 1927. Until 1912 printed most by hand in small editions; thereafter used professional printers, sometimes under commission from publishers, including Pan-Presse, J. B. Neumann, and Kurt Wolff. a b c Roger Manvell. Henrik Galeen – Films as writer:, Other films. Film Reference . Retrieved 23 April 2009. Hsü, Immanuel C. Y. (1970). The Rise of Modern China. New York: Oxford University Press. p.830. ISBN 978-0-19-501240-8.

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